For all gene expression studies using qPCR, it is
necessary to compensate for differences between samples due to material
losses, differences in RT yields and PCR inhibition. Normalization
should include a reference gene, but can also be complemented by
identical sample-input amounts. The reference gene should have constant
expression in all the samples compared. There is no universal control
gene, expressed at a constant level under all conditions and in all
tissues, hence the choice of reference gene should be validated for each
The best way to choose the proper reference gene(s) is by running a
panel of potential genes on a number of representative test samples. The
most appropriate gene(s) for normalization are chosen in each case.
The reference genes that you chose can then be ordered in our webshop.
- Assays for 12 of the most common reference genes for gene expression studies
- Enough for 100 reactions per gene (25 μl qPCR reaction)
- Positive Control DNA
The Reference Gene Panels are available for Human, Mouse and Rat.
Genes with varying cellular functions and expression levels have been
selected to reduce the risk of using co-regulated genes. The primers
have been designed to be exon-spanning where possible, and to give low
levels of primer dimers.